Introduction ::Philippines
The Philippine Islands became a Spanish colony during the 16th century; they were ceded to the US in 1898 following the Spanish-American War. In 1935 the Philippines became a self-governing commonwealth. Manuel QUEZON was elected president and was tasked with preparing the country for independence after a 10-year transition. In 1942 the islands fell under Japanese occupation during World War II, and US forces and Filipinos fought together during 1944-45 to regain control. On 4 July 1946 the Republic of the Philippines attained its independence. A 20-year rule by Ferdinand MARCOS ended in 1986, when a "people power" movement in Manila ("EDSA 1") forced him into exile and installed Corazon AQUINO as president. Her presidency was hampered by several coup attempts that prevented a return to full political stability and economic development. Fidel RAMOS was elected president in 1992. His administration was marked by increased stability and by progress on economic reforms. In 1992, the US closed its last military bases on the islands. Joseph ESTRADA was elected president in 1998. He was succeeded by his vice-president, Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO, in January 2001 after ESTRADA's stormy impeachment trial on corruption charges broke down and another "people power" movement ("EDSA 2") demanded his resignation. MACAPAGAL-ARROYO was elected to a six-year term as president in May 2004. The Philippine Government faces threats from three terrorist groups on the US Government's Foreign Terrorist Organization list. Decades of Muslim insurgency in the southern Philippines have led to a peace accord with one group and on-again/off-again peace talks with another.
Geography ::Philippines
Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Philippine Sea and the South China Sea, east of Vietnam
13 00 N, 122 00 E
total: 300,000 sq km
country comparison to the world: 72
land: 298,170 sq km
water: 1,830 sq km
slightly larger than Arizona
0 km
36,289 km
territorial sea: irregular polygon extending up to 100 nm from coastline as defined by 1898 treaty; since late 1970s has also claimed polygonal-shaped area in South China Sea up to 285 nm in breadth
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: to depth of exploitation
Current Weather
tropical marine; northeast monsoon (November to April); southwest monsoon (May to October)
mostly mountains with narrow to extensive coastal lowlands
lowest point: Philippine Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Apo 2,954 m
timber, petroleum, nickel, cobalt, silver, gold, salt, copper
arable land: 19%
permanent crops: 16.67%
other: 64.33% (2005)
15,500 sq km (2003)
479 cu km (1999)
total: 28.52 cu km/yr (17%/9%/74%)
per capita: 343 cu m/yr (2000)
astride typhoon belt, usually affected by 15 and struck by five to six cyclonic storms per year; landslides; active volcanoes; destructive earthquakes; tsunamis
uncontrolled deforestation especially in watershed areas; soil erosion; air and water pollution in major urban centers; coral reef degradation; increasing pollution of coastal mangrove swamps that are important fish breeding grounds
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
the Philippine archipelago is made up of 7,107 islands; favorably located in relation to many of Southeast Asia's main water bodies: the South China Sea, Philippine Sea, Sulu Sea, Celebes Sea, and Luzon Strait
People ::Philippines
97,976,603 (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
0-14 years: 35.2% (male 17,606,352/female 16,911,376)
15-64 years: 60.6% (male 29,679,327/female 29,737,919)
65 years and over: 4.1% (male 1,744,248/female 2,297,381) (2010 est.)
total: 22.7 years
male: 22.2 years
female: 23.2 years (2010 est.)
1.957% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63
26.01 births/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64
5.1 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 184
-1.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 127
urban population: 65% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 3% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2010 est.)
total: 20.56 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 102
male: 23.17 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 17.83 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)
total population: 71.09 years
country comparison to the world: 133
male: 68.17 years
female: 74.15 years (2010 est.)
3.23 children born/woman (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64
less than 0.1% (2003 est.)
country comparison to the world: 143
8,300 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 110
fewer than 200 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and Japanese encephalitis
water contact disease: leptospirosis (2009)
noun: Filipino(s)
adjective: Philippine
Tagalog 28.1%, Cebuano 13.1%, Ilocano 9%, Bisaya/Binisaya 7.6%, Hiligaynon Ilonggo 7.5%, Bikol 6%, Waray 3.4%, other 25.3% (2000 census)
Roman Catholic 80.9%, Muslim 5%, Evangelical 2.8%, Iglesia ni Kristo 2.3%, Aglipayan 2%, other Christian 4.5%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.6%, none 0.1% (2000 census)
Filipino (official; based on Tagalog) and English (official); eight major dialects - Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon or Ilonggo, Bicol, Waray, Pampango, and Pangasinan
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.6%
male: 92.5%
female: 92.7% (2000 census)
total: 12 years
male: 11 years
female: 12 years (2006)
2.5% of GDP (2005)
country comparison to the world: 158
Government ::Philippines
conventional long form: Republic of the Philippines
conventional short form: Philippines
local long form: Republika ng Pilipinas
local short form: Pilipinas
name: Manila
geographic coordinates: 14 35 N, 121 00 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
80 provinces and 120 chartered cities
provinces: Abra, Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Aklan, Albay, Antique, Apayao, Aurora, Basilan, Bataan, Batanes, Batangas, Biliran, Benguet, Bohol, Bukidnon, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Camiguin, Capiz, Catanduanes, Cavite, Cebu, Compostela, Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur, Davao Oriental, Dinagat Islands, Eastern Samar, Guimaras, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Iloilo, Isabela, Kalinga, Laguna, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, La Union, Leyte, Maguindanao, Marinduque, Masbate, Mindoro Occidental, Mindoro Oriental, Misamis Occidental, Misamis Oriental, Mountain Province, Negros Occidental, Negros Oriental, North Cotabato, Northern Samar, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Palawan, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Quezon, Quirino, Rizal, Romblon, Samar, Sarangani, Siquijor, Sorsogon, South Cotabato, Southern Leyte, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur, Tarlac, Tawi-Tawi, Zambales, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, Zamboanga Sibugay
chartered cities: Alaminos, Angeles, Antipolo, Bacolod, Bago, Baguio, Bais, Balanga, Batac, Batangas, Bayawan, Bislig, Butuan, Cabadbaran, Cabanatuan, Cadiz, Cagayan de Oro, Calamba, Calapan, Calbayog, Candon, Canlaon, Cauayan, Cavite, Cebu, Cotabato, Dagupan, Danao, Dapitan, Davao, Digos, Dipolog, Dumaguete, Escalante, Gapan, General Santos, Gingoog, Himamaylan, Iligan, Iloilo, Isabela, Iriga, Kabankalan, Kalookan, Kidapawan, Koronadal, La Carlota, Laoag, Lapu-Lapu, Las Pinas, Legazpi, Ligao, Lipa, Lucena, Maasin, Makati, Malabon, Malaybalay, Malolos, Mandaluyong, Mandaue, Manila, Marawi, Marikina, Masbate, Mati, Meycauayan, Muntinlupa, Munoz, Naga, Navotas, Olongapo, Ormoc, Oroquieta, Ozamis, Pagadian, Palayan, Panabo, Paranaque, Pasay, Pasig, Passi, Puerto Princesa, Quezon, Roxas, Sagay, Samal, San Carlos (in Negros Occidental), San Carlos (in Pangasinan), San Fernando (in La Union), San Fernando (in Pampanga), San Jose, San Jose del Monte, San Juan, San Pablo, Santa Rosa, Santiago, Silay, Sipalay, Sorsogon, Surigao, Tabaco, Tacloban, Tacurong, Tagaytay, Tagbilaran, Taguig, Tagum, Talisay (in Cebu), Talisay (in Negros Occidental), Tanauan, Tangub, Tanjay, Tarlac, Toledo, Tuguegarao, Trece Martires, Urdaneta, Valencia, Valenzuela, Victorias, Vigan, Zamboanga (2009)
12 June 1898 (independence proclaimed from Spain); 4 July 1946 (from the US)
Independence Day, 12 June (1898); note - 12 June 1898 was date of declaration of independence from Spain; 4 July 1946 was date of independence from US
2 February 1987, effective 11 February 1987
based on Spanish and Anglo-American law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
18 years of age; universal
chief of state: President Benigno AQUINO (since 30 June 2010); Vice President Jejomar BINAY (since 30 June 2010); note - president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Benigno AQUINO (since 30 June 2010)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president with consent of Commission of Appointments
(For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
elections: president and vice president elected on separate tickets by popular vote for a single six-year term; election held on 10 May 2010; Benigno AQUINO declared winner and took office on 30 June 2010); next election to be held in May 2016
election results: Benigno AQUINO elected president; percent of vote - Benigno AQUINO 42.1%, Joseph ESTRADA 26.3%, seven others 31.6%; Jejomar BINAY elected vice president; percent of vote Jejomar BINAY 41.6%, Manuel ROXAS 39.6%, six others 18.8%
bicameral Congress or Kongreso consists of the Senate or Senado (24 seats - one-half elected every three years; members elected at large by popular vote to serve six-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Kapulungan Ng Nga Kinatawan; the House has 287 seats including 230 members in one tier representing districts and 57 sectoral party-list members in a second tier representing special minorities elected on the basis of one seat for every 2% of the total vote but are limited to three seats; a party represented in one tier may not hold seats in the other tier; all House members are elected by popular vote to serve three-year terms
note: the constitution limits the House of Representatives to 250 members; the number of members allowed was increased, however, through legislation when in April 2009 the Philippine Supreme Court ruled that additional party members could sit in the House of Representatives if they received the required number of votes
elections: Senate - elections last held on 10 May 2010 (next to be held in May 2013); House of Representatives - elections last held on 10 May 2010 (next to be held in May 2013)
election results: (results of 2010 election not official); Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Lakas-Kampi CMD 4, LP 4, NP 4, NPC 2, PMP 2, LDP 1, PRP 1, independents 5; note - there are 23 rather than 24 sitting senators because one senator was elected mayor of Manila; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party including party-list - Lakas-Kampi CMD 36.3%, LP 14.7%, NPC 10.7%, NP 9.1%, independents 2.4%, others 26.8%; seats by party - Lakas-Kampi CMD 105, LP 42, NPC 31, NP 25, others 20, independents 7, party-list 57
Supreme Court (15 justices are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Judicial and Bar Council and serve until 70 years of age); Court of Appeals; Sandigan-bayan (special court for hearing corruption cases of government officials)
Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino (Struggle of Filipino Democrats) or LDP [Edgardo ANGARA]; Lakas ng EDSA-Christian Muslim Democrats or Lakas-CMD [Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO]; Liberal Party or LP [Manuel ROXAS]; Nacionalista Party or NP [Manuel VILLAR]; Nationalist People's Coalition or NPC [Frisco SAN JUAN]; PDP-Laban [Aquilino PIMENTEL]; People's Reform Party [Miriam Defensor SANTIAGO]; Puwersa ng Masang Pilipino (Force of the Philippine Masses) or PMP [Joseph ESTRADA]; United Opposition or UNO [Jejomar BINAY]
ABONO [Robert ESTRELLA]; AKBAYAN [Anna Theresia BARAQUIEL]; An Waray [Florencio NOEL]; Anak Mindanao [Mujiv HATAMIN]; ANAKPAWIS [Rafael MARIANO]; ARC [Narciso SANTIAGO III]; Association of Philippine Electric Cooperatives (APEC) [Ernesto PABLO and Edgar VALDEZ]; A TEACHER [Mariano PIAMONTE]; Bayan Muna [Satur OCAMPO and Teodoro CASINO, Jr.]; Black and White Movement [Vicente ROMANO]; BUHAY [Rene VELARDE, Carissa COSCOLLUELLA, and William TIENG]; BUTIL [Leonila CHAVEZ]; CIBAC [Emmanuel Joel VILLANUEVA]; COOP-NATCO [Jose PING-AY]; GABRIELA [Liza MAZA and Luzviminda ILAGAN]; KABATAAN [Raymon PALATINO]; Kilosbayan [Jovito SALONGA]; YACAP [Carol LOPEZ]
chief of mission: Ambassador Willy C. GAA
chancery: 1600 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 467-9300
FAX: [1] (202) 467-9417
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Honolulu, Los Angeles, New York, Saipan (Northern Mariana Islands), San Francisco, Tamuning (Guam)
chief of mission: Ambassador Harry K. THOMAS Jr.
embassy: 1201 Roxas Boulevard, Ermita 1000, Manila
mailing address: PSC 500, FPO AP 96515-1000
telephone: [63] (2) 301-2000
FAX: [63] (2) 301-2399
two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red; a white equilateral triangle is based on the hoist side; the center of the triangle displays a yellow sun with eight primary rays; each corner of the triangle contains a small, yellow, five-pointed star; blue stands for peace and justice, red symbolizes courage, the white equal-sided triangle represents equality; the rays recall the first eight provinces that sought independence from Spain, while the stars represent the three major geographical divisions of the country: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao; the design of the flag dates to 1897
note: in wartime the flag is flown upside down with the red band at the top
Economy ::Philippines
Philippine GDP grew just under 1% in 2009 but the economy weathered the 2008-09 global recession better than its regional peers due to minimal exposure to securities issued by troubled global financial institutions; lower dependence on exports; relatively resilient domestic consumption, supported by large remittances from four-to five-million overseas Filipino workers; and a growing business process outsourcing industry. Economic growth in the Philippines has averaged 4.5% per year since 2001, when President MACAPAGAL-ARROYO took office. Despite this growth, poverty worsened during the term of MACAPAGAL-ARROYO, because of a high population growth rate and inequitable distribution of income. MACAPAGAL-ARROYO averted a fiscal crisis by pushing for new revenue measures and, until recently, tightening expenditures to address the government's yawning budget deficit and to reduce high debt and debt service ratios. But the government abandoned its 2008 balanced-budget goal in order to help the economy weather the global financial and economic storm. The economy faces several long term challenges. The Philippines must maintain the reform momentum in order to catch up with regional competitors, boost trade, alleviate poverty, and improve employment opportunities and infrastructure. Inadequate tax revenues could limit the government's ability to address these issues.
$324.4 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
$321.6 billion (2008 est.)
$309.8 billion (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars
$161 billion (2009 est.)
0.9% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103
3.8% (2008 est.)
7.1% (2007 est.)
$3,300 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 162
$3,300 (2008 est.)
$3,300 (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars
agriculture: 14.9%
industry: 29.9%
services: 55.1% (2009 est.)
37.89 million (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
agriculture: 34%
industry: 15%
services: 51% (2009 est.)
7.5% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70
7.4% (2008 est.)
32.9% (2006 est.)
lowest 10%: 2.4%
highest 10%: 31.2% (2006)
45.8 (2006)
country comparison to the world: 37
46.6 (2003)
14.3% of GDP (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 138
revenues: $23.56 billion
expenditures: $29.82 billion (2009 est.)
58.7% of GDP (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32
56.9% of GDP (2008 est.)
3.3% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 105
9.3% (2008 est.)
3.5% (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 75
6% (31 December 2008)
6.89% (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 105
8.75% (31 December 2008)
$24.32 billion (30 November 2009)
country comparison to the world: 42
$22.53 billion (31 December 2008)
$55.71 billion (30 November 2009)
country comparison to the world: 36
$65.85 billion (31 December 2007)
$81.96 billion (30 November 2009)
country comparison to the world: 46
$77.68 billion (31 December 2008)
$130.5 billion (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 42
$85.63 billion (31 December 2008)
$172.5 billion (31 December 2007)
sugarcane, coconuts, rice, corn, bananas, cassavas, pineapples, mangoes; pork, eggs, beef; fish
electronics assembly, garments, footwear, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, wood products, food processing, petroleum refining, fishing
-2% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 89
56.57 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45
48.96 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46
0 kWh (2008 est.)
0 kWh (2008 est.)
25,290 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73
313,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41
36,720 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83
342,200 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31
138.5 million bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
2.94 billion cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
2.94 billion cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 142
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 145
98.54 billion cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
$8.552 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25
$3.633 billion (2008)
$37.51 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56
$48.25 billion (2008 est.)
semiconductors and electronic products, transport equipment, garments, copper products, petroleum products, coconut oil, fruits
US 15.35%, Japan 14.19%, China 13.19%, Singapore 9.44%, Hong Kong 9%, South Korea 5.12%, Germany 4.1% (2009)
$46.39 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
$61.14 billion (2008)
electronic products, mineral fuels, machinery and transport equipment, iron and steel, textile fabrics, grains, chemicals, plastic
Japan 15.32%, US 11.47%, Singapore 9.54%, China 8.93%, Taiwan 8.27% (2009)
$44.24 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35
$37.55 billion (31 December 2008)
$53.14 billion (30 September 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
$66.27 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
$22.36 billion (31 October 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64
$20.36 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
$6.192 billion (31 September 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56
$5.832 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Philippine pesos (PHP) per US dollar - 47.8 (2009), 44.439 (2008), 46.148 (2007), 51.246 (2006), 55.086 (2005)
Communications ::Philippines
3.905 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 40
68.102 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 14
general assessment: good international radiotelephone and submarine cable services; domestic and interisland service adequate
domestic: domestic satellite system with 11 earth stations; mobile-cellular communications now dominate the industry; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity about 80 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 63; a series of submarine cables together provide connectivity to Asia, US, the Middle East, and Europe; multiple international gateways (2008)
multiple national private TV and radio networks and a government-operated national TV and radio network; about 300 television stations and more than 1,000 radio stations; multi-channel satellite and cable TV systems are available (2008)
394,990 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 53
5.618 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 42
Transportation ::Philippines
254 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 25
total: 85
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 29
914 to 1,523 m: 34
under 914 m: 10 (2010)
total: 169
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 66
under 914 m: 99 (2010)
2 (2010)
oil 107 km; refined products 112 km (2009)
total: 897 km
country comparison to the world: 95
narrow gauge: 897 km 1.067-m gauge (492 km are in operation) (2008)
total: 201,910 km
country comparison to the world: 24
paved: 21,677 km
unpaved: 180,233 km (2008)
3,219 km; (limited to vessels with draft less than 1.5 m) (2008)
country comparison to the world: 31
total: 391
country comparison to the world: 27
by type: bulk carrier 75, cargo 125, carrier 16, chemical tanker 17, container 6, liquefied gas 5, passenger 6, passenger/cargo 68, petroleum tanker 36, refrigerated cargo 15, roll on/roll off 11, vehicle carrier 11
foreign-owned: 161 (Bermuda 34, China 4, Greece 4, Hong Kong 1, Japan 81, Malaysia 1, Netherlands 23, Norway 10, Singapore 1, Taiwan 1, UAE 1)
registered in other countries: 11 (Comoros 1, Cyprus 1, Hong Kong 1, Indonesia 1, Panama 7) (2008)
Cagayan de Oro, Cebu, Davao, Liman, Manila, Nasipit Harbor
the International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial and offshore waters in the South China Sea as high risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships; numerous commercial vessels have been attacked and hijacked both at anchor and while underway; hijacked vessels are often disguised and cargo diverted to ports in East Asia; crews have been murdered or cast adrift
Military ::Philippines
Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP): Army, Navy (includes Marine Corps and Coast Guard), Air Force (2010)
18-25 years of age (officers 21-29) for compulsory and voluntary military service; applicants must be single male or female Philippine citizens (2010)
males age 16-49: 25,079,262
females age 16-49: 24,556,912 (2010 est.)
males age 16-49: 19,650,825
females age 16-49: 21,029,243 (2010 est.)
male: 1,039,679
female: 1,001,448 (2010 est.)
0.9% of GDP (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 143
Transnational Issues ::Philippines
Philippines claims sovereignty over Scarborough Reef (also claimed by China together with Taiwan) and over certain of the Spratly Islands, known locally as the Kalayaan (Freedom) Islands, also claimed by China, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Vietnam; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea," has eased tensions in the Spratly Islands but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants; in March 2005, the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord to conduct marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands; Philippines retains a dormant claim to Malaysia's Sabah State in northern Borneo based on the Sultanate of Sulu's granting the Philippines Government power of attorney to pursue a sovereignty claim on his behalf; maritime delimitation negotiations continue with Palau
IDPs: 300,000 (fighting between government troops and MILF and Abu Sayyaf groups) (2007)
domestic methamphetamine production has been a growing problem in recent years despite government crackdowns; major consumer of amphetamines; longstanding marijuana producer mainly in rural areas where Manila's control is limited