Introduction ::Montenegro
The use of the name Montenegro began in the 15th century when the Crnojevic dynasty began to rule the Serbian principality of Zeta; over subsequent centuries Montenegro was able to maintain its independence from the Ottoman Empire. From the 16th to 19th centuries, Montenegro became a theocracy ruled by a series of bishop princes; in 1852, it was transformed into a secular principality. After World War I, Montenegro was absorbed by the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, which became the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929; at the conclusion of World War II, it became a constituent republic of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. When the latter dissolved in 1992, Montenegro federated with Serbia, first as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and, after 2003, in a looser union of Serbia and Montenegro. In May 2006, Montenegro invoked its right under the Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro to hold a referendum on independence from the state union. The vote for severing ties with Serbia exceeded 55% - the threshold set by the EU - allowing Montenegro to formally declare its independence on 3 June 2006.
Geography ::Montenegro
Southeastern Europe, between the Adriatic Sea and Serbia
42 30 N, 19 18 E
total: 13,812 sq km
country comparison to the world: 161
land: 13,452 sq km
water: 360 sq km
slightly smaller than Connecticut
total: 625 km
border countries: Albania 172 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina 225 km, Croatia 25 km, Kosovo 79 km, Serbia 124 km
293.5 km
territorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: defined by treaty
Current Weather
Mediterranean climate, hot dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfalls inland
highly indented coastline with narrow coastal plain backed by rugged high limestone mountains and plateaus
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Bobotov Kuk 2,522 m
bauxite, hydroelectricity
arable land: 13.7%
permanent crops: 1%
other: 85.3%
destructive earthquakes
pollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets, especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
strategic location along the Adriatic coast
People ::Montenegro
672,180 (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 165
0-14 years: 16% (male 52,645/female 54,846)
15-64 years: 70.3% (male 244,949/female 227,794)
65 years and over: 13.7% (male 37,217/female 54,729) (2010 est.)
total: 37.2 years
male: 35.9 years
female: 38.8 years (2010 est.)
-0.851% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 231
11.14 births/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 174
8.63 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87
urban population: 60% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: -0.8% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
at birth: 1.076 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2010 est.)
degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea
vectorborne disease: Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (2009)
noun: Montenegrin(s)
adjective: Montenegrin
Montenegrin 43%, Serbian 32%, Bosniak 8%, Albanian 5%, other (Muslims, Croats, Roma (Gypsy)) 12% (2003 census)
Orthodox 74.2%, Muslim 17.7%, Catholic 3.5%, other 0.6%, unspecified 3%, atheist 1% (2003 census)
Serbian 63.6%, Montenegrin (official) 22%, Bosnian 5.5%, Albanian 5.3%, unspecified 3.7% (2003 census)
Government ::Montenegro
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Montenegro
local long form: none
local short form: Crna Gora
former: People's Republic of Montenegro, Socialist Republic of Montenegro, Republic of Montenegro
name: Podgorica
geographic coordinates: 42 26 N, 19 16 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1 hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
21 municipalities (opstine, singular - opstina); Andrijevica, Bar, Berane, Bijelo Polje, Budva, Cetinje, Danilovgrad, Herceg Novi, Kolasin, Kotor, Mojkovac, Niksic, Plav, Pljevlja, Pluzine, Podgorica, Rozaje, Savnik, Tivat, Ulcinj, Zabljak
3 June 2006 (from Serbia and Montenegro)
National Day, 13 July (1878)
approved 19 October 2007 (by the Assembly)
based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
18 years of age; universal
chief of state: President Filip VUJANOVIC (since 6 April 2008)
head of government: Prime Minister Milo DJUKANOVIC (since 29 February 2008)
cabinet: Ministries act as cabinet
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elections: president elected by direct vote for five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 6 April 2008 (next to be held in 2013); prime minister proposed by president, accepted by Assembly
election results: Filip VUJANOVIC reelected president; Filip VUJANOVIC 51.9%, Andrija MANDIC 19.6%, Nebojsa MEDOJEVIC 16.6%, Srdan MILIC 11.9%
unicameral Assembly (81 seats; members elected by direct vote to serve four-year terms; note - seats increased from 74 seats in 2006)
elections: last held on 29 March 2009 (next to be held in 2013)
election results: percent of vote by party - Coalition for European Montenegro 51.94%, SNP 16.83%, NSD 9.22%, PZP 6.03%, other (including Albanian minority parties) 15.98%; seats by party - Coalition for European Montenegro 48, SNP 16, NSD 8, PZP 5, Albanian minority parties 4
Constitutional Court (five judges serve nine-year terms); Supreme Court (judges have life tenure)
Albanian Alternative or AA [Vesel SINISHTAJ]; Coalition for European Montenegro (bloc) [Milo DJUKANOVIC] (includes Democratic Party of Socialists or DPS [Milo DJUKANOVIC], Social Democratic Party or SDP [Ranko KRIVOKAPIC], Bosniak Party of BS [Rafet HUSOVIC], and Croatian Civic Initiative or HGI [Marija VUCINOVIC); Coalition SNP-NS-DSS (bloc) (includes Socialist People's Party or SNP [Srdjan MILIC], People's Party of Montenegro or NS [Predrag POPOVIC], and Democratic Serbian Party of Montenegro or DSS [Ranko KADIC]); Democratic League-Party of Democratic Prosperity or SPP [Mehmet BARDHIJ]; Democratic Union of Albanians or DUA [Ferhat DINOSA]; For a Different Montenegro (bloc) [Goran BATRICEVIC] (includes Democratic Center or DC [Goran BATRICEVIC] and Liberal Party of Montenegro or LP [Miodrag ZIVKOVIC]); FORCA [Nazif CUNGU]; Movement for Changes or PZP [Nebojsa MEDOJEVIC]; National Coalition (includes People's Party of Montenegro or NS [Predrag POPOVIC] and Democratic Serbian Party of Montenegro or DSS [Ranko KADIC]); New Serb Democracy or NOVA [Andrija MANDIC]; Socialist People's Party of Montenegro or SNP [Srdjan MILIC]
chief of mission: Ambassador Miodrag VLAHOVIC
chancery: 1610 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC, 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-6108
FAX: [1] (202) 234-6109
consulate(s) general: New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Roderick W. MOORE
embassy: Ljubljanska bb, 81000 Podgorica, Montenegro
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [382] 81 225 417
FAX: [382] 81 241 358
a red field bordered by a narrow golden-yellow stripe with the Montenegrin coat of arms centered; the arms consist of a double-headed golden eagle - symbolizing the unity of church and state - surmounted by a crown; the eagle holds a golden scepter in its right claw and a blue orb in its left; the breast shield over the eagle shows a golden lion passant on a green field in front of a blue sky; the lion is symbol of episcopal authority and harks back to the three and a half centuries that Montenegro was ruled as a theocracy
Economy ::Montenegro
Montenegro severed its economy from federal control and from Serbia during the MILOSEVIC era and maintained its own central bank, adopted the Deutchmark, then the euro - rather than the Yugoslav dinar - as official currency, collected customs tariffs, and managed its own budget. The dissolution of the loose political union between Serbia and Montenegro in 2006 led to separate membership in several international financial institutions, such as the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. On 18 January 2007, Montenegro joined the World Bank and IMF. Montenegro is pursuing its own membership in the World Trade Organization and signed a Stabilization and Association agreement with the European Union in October 2007. On December 15, 2008, Montenegro submitted an EU membership application. Unemployment and regional disparities in development are key political and economic problems. Montenegro has privatized its large aluminum complex - the dominant industry - as well as most of its financial sector, and has begun to attract foreign direct investment in the tourism sector. The global financial crisis has had a significant negative impact on the economy, due to the ongoing credit crunch, a decline in the real estate sector, and a fall in aluminum exports.
$6.572 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 152
$6.999 billion (2008 est.)
$6.547 billion (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars
$4.114 billion (2009 est.)
-6.1% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 195
6.9% (2008 est.)
10.7% (2007 est.)
$9,800 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108
$10,300 (2008 est.)
$9,600 (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
259,100 (2004)
country comparison to the world: 166
agriculture: 2%
industry: 30%
services: 68% (2004 est.)
14.7% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 145
7% (2007 est.)
30 (2003)
country comparison to the world: 113
30.5% of GDP (2006 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA
38% of GDP (2006)
country comparison to the world: 68
3.4% (2007)
country comparison to the world: 110
9.24% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 101
9.09% (31 December 2007)
$816.8 million (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 118
$1.172 billion (31 December 2007)
$1.406 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 112
$1.446 billion (31 December 2007)
$NA (31 December 2008)
$3.083 billion (31 December 2007)
$NA (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 90
$2.863 billion (31 December 2008)
$3.699 billion (31 December 2007)
tobacco, potatoes, citrus fruits, olives, grapes; sheep
steelmaking, aluminum, agricultural processing, consumer goods, tourism
2.864 billion kWh (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 126
18.6 million kWh (2005)
country comparison to the world: 207
0 kWh (2005)
0 kWh (2005)
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 147
NA bbl/day 5,000 bbl/day
country comparison to the world: 169
314 bbl/day (2005)
country comparison to the world: 130
6,093 bbl/day (2005)
country comparison to the world: 153
0 bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 157
NA cu m
-$1.102 billion (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130
$171.3 million (2003)
country comparison to the world: 182
Italy 29.52%, Greece 22.65%, Slovenia 11.83%, Hungary 8.96%, US 7.93% (2009)
$601.7 million (2003)
country comparison to the world: 184
Italy 17.54%, Slovenia 14.62%, Germany 10.5%, Austria 7.82%, China 7.82%, Russia 4.4%, Hungary 4.11%, Greece 4.11%, Netherlands 3.96% (2009)
$650 million (2006)
country comparison to the world: 154
euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.7338 (2009), 0.6827 (2008), 0.7345 (2007), 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005)
Communications ::Montenegro
362,000 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 105
735,000 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 147
general assessment: modern telecommunications system with access to European satellites
domestic: GSM mobile-cellular service, available through multiple providers with national coverage, is growing
international: country code - 382; 2 international switches connect the national system
state-owned national radio-TV broadcaster operates 2 terrestrial television networks, 1 satellite TV channel, and 2 radio networks; roughly a dozen privately-owned TV broadcasters operate networks nationally, regionally, and locally; in addition to the 2 state-owned national radio networks, roughly 50 privately-owned radio stations and networks broadcast (2007)
6,247 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 137
294,000 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 128
Transportation ::Montenegro
5 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 183
total: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2010)
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2010)
1 (2010)
total: 250 km
country comparison to the world: 126
standard gauge: 250 km 1.435-m gauge (electrified 169 km) (2007)
total: 7,404 km
country comparison to the world: 145
paved: 4,927 km
unpaved: 2,477 km (2008)
total: 6
country comparison to the world: 129
by type: cargo 5, passenger/cargo 1
registered in other countries: 3 (Bahamas 2, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1) (2008)
Military ::Montenegro
Armed Forces of the Republic of Montenegro: Army, Navy, Air Force (2009)
compulsory national military service abolished August 2006
males age 16-49: 151,798
females age 16-49: 134,267 (2010 est.)
male: 3,407
female: 3,741 (2010 est.)
Transnational Issues ::Montenegro
refugees (country of origin): 7,000 (Kosovo); note - mostly ethnic Serbs and Roma who fled Kosovo in 1999
IDPs: 16,192 (ethnic conflict in 1999 and riots in 2004) (2007)
current situation: Montenegro is primarily a transit country for the trafficking of women and girls to Western Europe for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation; women and girls from the Balkans and Eastern Europe are trafficked across Montenegro to Western European countries
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Montenegro is on the Tier 2 Watch List for its failure to provide evidence of increasing efforts to combat trafficking in persons in 2007; public attention to the issue of trafficking has diminished considerably in Montenegro in recent years (2008)