Introduction ::Mongolia
The Mongols gained fame in the 13th century when under Chinggis KHAN they established a huge Eurasian empire through conquest. After his death the empire was divided into several powerful Mongol states, but these broke apart in the 14th century. The Mongols eventually retired to their original steppe homelands and in the late 17th century came under Chinese rule. Mongolia won its independence in 1921 with Soviet backing and a Communist regime was installed in 1924. The modern country of Mongolia, however, represents only part of the Mongols' historical homeland; more Mongols live in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China than in Mongolia. Following a peaceful democratic revolution, the ex-Communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) won elections in 1990 and 1992, but was defeated by the Democratic Union Coalition (DUC) in the 1996 parliamentary election. The MPRP won an overwhelming majority in the 2000 parliamentary election, but the party lost seats in the 2004 election and shared power with democratic coalition parties from 2004-08. The MPRP regained a solid majority in the 2008 parliamentary elections but nevertheless formed a coalition government with the Democratic Party. The prime minister and most cabinet members are MPRP members.
Geography ::Mongolia
Northern Asia, between China and Russia
46 00 N, 105 00 E
total: 1,564,116 sq km
country comparison to the world: 19
land: 1,553,556 sq km
water: 10,560 sq km
slightly smaller than Alaska
total: 8,220 km
border countries: China 4,677 km, Russia 3,543 km
0 km (landlocked)
none (landlocked)
Current Weather
desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)
vast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in south-central
lowest point: Hoh Nuur 518 m
highest point: Nayramadlin Orgil (Huyten Orgil) 4,374 m
oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron
arable land: 0.76%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 99.24% (2005)
840 sq km (2003)
34.8 cu km (1999)
total: 0.44 cu km/yr (20%/27%/52%)
per capita: 166 cu m/yr (2000)
dust storms; grassland and forest fires; drought; "zud," which is harsh winter conditions
limited natural fresh water resources in some areas; the policies of former Communist regimes promoted rapid urbanization and industrial growth that had negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal in power plants and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws severely polluted the air in Ulaanbaatar; deforestation, overgrazing, and the converting of virgin land to agricultural production increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification and mining activities had a deleterious effect on the environment
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia
People ::Mongolia
3,041,142 (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 136
0-14 years: 28.1% (male 436,391/female 418,923)
15-64 years: 67.9% (male 1,031,819/female 1,033,806)
65 years and over: 4% (male 52,430/female 67,773) (2010 est.)
total: 25.8 years
male: 25.3 years
female: 26.2 years (2010 est.)
1.493% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88
21.05 births/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93
6.12 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158
urban population: 57% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 1.2% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2010 est.)
total: 39.88 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 68
male: 42.99 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 36.61 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)
total population: 67.65 years
country comparison to the world: 154
male: 65.23 years
female: 70.19 years (2010 est.)
2.22 children born/woman (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115
less than 0.1% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 133
fewer than 500 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 152
fewer than 200 (2003 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107
noun: Mongolian(s)
adjective: Mongolian
Mongol (mostly Khalkha) 94.9%, Turkic (mostly Kazakh) 5%, other (including Chinese and Russian) 0.1% (2000)
Buddhist Lamaist 50%, Shamanist and Christian 6%, Muslim 4%, none 40% (2004)
Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Russian (1999)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.8%
male: 98%
female: 97.5% (2000 census)
total: 13 years
male: 12 years
female: 14 years (2006)
5% of GDP (2004)
country comparison to the world: 74
Government ::Mongolia
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Mongolia
local long form: none
local short form: Mongol Uls
former: Outer Mongolia
name: Ulaanbaatar
geographic coordinates: 47 55 N, 106 55 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
21 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag) and 1 municipality* (singular - hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan-Uul, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan (Zavkhan), Govi-Altay, Govisumber, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Orhon, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs
11 July 1921 (from China)
Independence Day/Revolution Day, 11 July (1921)
13 January 1992
blend of Soviet and German systems that employ "continental" or "civil" code; case-precedent may be used to inform judges, but all decisions must refer to the law as written; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
18 years of age; universal
chief of state: President Tsakhia ELBEGDORJ (since 18 June 2009)
head of government: Prime Minister Sukhbaatar BATBOLD (since 29 October 2009); First Deputy Prime Minister (Norov ALTANKHUYAG (since 20 September 2008); Deputy Prime Minister Miegombyn ENKHBOLD (since 6 December 2007)
cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the prime minister in consultation with the president and confirmed by the State Great Hural (parliament)
(For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
elections: presidential candidates nominated by political parties represented in State Great Hural and elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 24 May 2009 (next to be held in May 2013); following legislative elections, leader of majority party or majority coalition usually elected prime minister by State Great Hural
election results: in elections in May 2009, Tsakhia ELBEGDORJ elected president; percent of vote - Tsakhia ELBEGDORJ 51.2%, Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR 47.4%, others 1.3%
unicameral State Great Hural 76 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms
elections: last held on 29 June 2008 (next to be held in June 2012)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MPRP 46, DP 27, others 3
Supreme Court (serves as appeals court for people's and provincial courts but rarely overturns verdicts of lower courts; judges are nominated by the General Council of Courts and approved by the president)
Democratic Party or DP [Norov ALTANHUYAG]; Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party or MPRP [Sukhbaatar BATBOLD]
other: human rights groups; women's groups
chief of mission: Ambassador Khasbazaryn BEKHBAT
chancery: 2833 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 333-7117
FAX: [1] (202) 298-9227
consulate(s) general: New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Jonathan ADDLETON
embassy: Big Ring Road, 11th Micro Region, Ulaanbaatar, 14171 Mongolia
mailing address: PSC 461, Box 300, FPO AP 96521-0002; P.O. Box 1021, Ulaanbaatar-13
telephone: [976] (11) 329-095
FAX: [976] (11) 320-776
three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red; centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the national emblem ("soyombo" - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol); blue represents the sky, red symbolizes progress and prosperity
Economy ::Mongolia
Economic activity in Mongolia has traditionally been based on herding and agriculture - Mongolia's extensive mineral deposits, however, have attracted foreign investors. The country holds copper, gold, coal, molybdenum, fluorspar, uranium, tin, and tungsten deposits, which account for a large part of foreign direct investment and government revenues. Soviet assistance, at its height one-third of GDP, disappeared almost overnight in 1990 and 1991 at the time of the dismantlement of the USSR. The following decade saw Mongolia endure both deep recession, because of political inaction and natural disasters, as well as economic growth, because of reform-embracing, free-market economics and extensive privatization of the formerly state-run economy. Severe winters and summer droughts in 2000-02 resulted in massive livestock die-off and zero or negative GDP growth. This was compounded by falling prices for Mongolia's primary sector exports and widespread opposition to privatization. Growth averaged nearly 9% per year in 2004-08 largely because of high copper prices and new gold production. In 2008 Mongolia experienced a soaring inflation rate with year-to-year inflation reaching nearly 30% - the highest inflation rate in over a decade. By late 2008, as the country began to feel the effects of the global financial crisis, falling commodity prices helped lower inflation, but also reduced government revenues and forced cuts in spending. In early 2009, the International Monetary Fund reached a $236 million Stand-by Arrangement with Mongolia, and the country has started to move out of the crisis, although the banking sector remains unstable. In October 2009, the government passed long-awaited legislation on an investment agreement to develop Mongolia's Oyu Tolgoi mine, considered to be one of the world's largest untapped copper deposits. Mongolia's economy continues to be heavily influenced by its neighbors. Mongolia purchases 95% of its petroleum products and a substantial amount of electric power from Russia, leaving it vulnerable to price increases. Trade with China represents more than half of Mongolia's total external trade - China receives about two-thirds of Mongolia's exports. Remittances from Mongolians working abroad are sizable, but have fallen due to the economic crisis; money laundering is a growing concern. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization in 1997 and seeks to expand its participation in regional economic and trade regimes.
$9.435 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 150
$9.531 billion (2008 est.)
$8.752 billion (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars
$4.203 billion (2009 est.)
-1% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 128
8.9% (2008 est.)
10.2% (2007 est.)
$3,100 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 164
$3,200 (2008 est.)
$3,000 (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars
agriculture: 21.2%
industry: 29.5%
services: 49.3% (2009 est.)
1.068 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 141
agriculture: 34%
industry: 5%
services: 61% (2008)
2.8% (2008)
country comparison to the world: 19
3% (2007)
36.1% (2004)
lowest 10%: 2.9%
highest 10%: 24.9% (2005)
32.8 (2002)
country comparison to the world: 97
44 (1998)
revenues: $1.38 billion
expenditures: $1.6 billion (2009)
4.2% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135
28% (2008 est.)
10% (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 16
14.78% (31 December 2008)
8% (2009)
country comparison to the world: 25
18% (31 December 2008)
$451.4 million (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 133
$510.7 million (31 December 2008)
$1.545 billion (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 110
$1.288 billion (31 December 2008)
$1.875 billion (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 101
$1.743 billion (31 December 2008)
$430.2 million (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 106
$407 million (31 December 2008)
$612.2 million (31 December 2007)
wheat, barley, vegetables, forage crops; sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses
construction and construction materials; mining (coal, copper, molybdenum, fluorspar, tin, tungsten, and gold); oil; food and beverages; processing of animal products, cashmere and natural fiber manufacturing
3% (2006 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
4.03 billion kWh (2009)
country comparison to the world: 117
3.439 billion kWh (2009)
country comparison to the world: 120
21.2 million kWh (2009)
186.1 million kWh (2009)
5,100 bbl/day (2009)
country comparison to the world: 93
16,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135
5,300 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104
0 bbl/day (2009)
country comparison to the world: 206
NA bbl
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 143
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 136
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 154
0 cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 110
-$228.7 million (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93
-$710 million (2008 est.)
$1.902 billion (2009)
country comparison to the world: 130
$2.539 billion (2008)
copper, apparel, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals, coal
China 78.52%, Canada 9.46%, Russia 3.02% (2009)
$2.131 billion (2009)
country comparison to the world: 150
$3.224 billion (2008)
machinery and equipment, fuel, cars, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea
China 35.99%, Russia 31.56%, South Korea 7.08%, Japan 4.8% (2009)
$1.86 billion (2009)
country comparison to the world: 135
$1.6 billion (2008)
togrog/tugriks (MNT) per US dollar - 1,442.8 (2009), 1,267.51 (2008), 1,170 (2007), 1,165 (2006), 1,205 (2005)
Communications ::Mongolia
165,000 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 129
1.796 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 128
general assessment: network is improving with international direct dialing available in many areas; a fiber-optic network has been installed that is improving broadband and communication services between major urban centers with multiple companies providing inter-city fiber-optic cable services
domestic: very low fixed-line teledensity; there are multiple mobile- cellular providers and subscribership is increasing rapidly;
international: country code - 976; satellite earth stations - 7
following a law passed in 2005, Mongolia's state-run radio and TV provider converted to a public service provider; also available are private radio and TV broadcasters, as well as multi-channel satellite and cable TV providers; more than 100 radio stations, including some 20 via repeaters for the public broadcaster; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2008)
7,942 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 132
330,000 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 122
Transportation ::Mongolia
46 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 94
total: 14
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2010)
total: 32
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 25
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2010)
1 (2010)
total: 1,810 km
country comparison to the world: 76
broad gauge: 1,810 km 1.520-m gauge (2008)
total: 49,250 km
country comparison to the world: 82
paved: 2,824 km
unpaved: 46,426 km (includes 1,994 km with gravel surface and 1,874 km with improved surface) (2009)
580 km
country comparison to the world: 82
note: only waterway in operation is Lake Hovsgol (135 km); Selenge River (270 km) and Orhon River (175 km) are navigable but carry little traffic; lakes and rivers freeze in winter, are open from May to September (2007)
total: 77
country comparison to the world: 57
by type: bulk carrier 20, cargo 44, chemical tanker 2, liquefied gas 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 6, vehicle carrier 1
foreign-owned: 53 (China 1, Germany 4, Indonesia 1, North Korea 1, South Korea 1, Lebanon 2, Russia 9, Singapore 9, Thailand 1, Ukraine 1, Vietnam 23) (2008)
Military ::Mongolia
Mongolian Armed Forces: Mongolian Army, Mongolian Air Force; there is no navy (2010)
18-25 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - 12 months in land or air defense forces or police; a small portion of Mongolian land forces (2.5 percent) is comprised of contract soldiers; women cannot be deployed overseas for military operations (2006)
males age 16-49: 887,059
females age 16-49: 880,788 (2010 est.)
males age 16-49: 715,585
females age 16-49: 748,083 (2010 est.)
male: 29,240
female: 28,156 (2010 est.)
1.4% of GDP (2006)
country comparison to the world: 111
Transnational Issues ::Mongolia