Introduction ::Guinea
Guinea has had a history of authoritarian rule since gaining its independence from France in 1958. Lansana CONTE came to power in 1984 when the military seized the government after the death of the first president, Sekou TOURE. Guinea did not hold democratic elections until 1993 when Gen. CONTE (head of the military government) was elected president of the civilian government. He was reelected in 1998 and again in 2003, though all the polls were marred by irregularities. History repeated itself in December 2008 when following President CONTE's death, Capt. Moussa Dadis CAMARA led a military coup, seizing power and suspending the constitution. His unwillingness to yield to domestic and international pressure to step down led to heightened political tensions that culminated in September 2009 when presidential guards opened fire on an opposition rally killing more than 150 people, and in early December 2009 when CAMARA was wounded in an assassination attempt and evacuated to Morocco and subsequently to Burkina Faso. A transitional government has been installed.
Geography ::Guinea
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Sierra Leone
11 00 N, 10 00 W
total: 245,857 sq km
country comparison to the world: 78
land: 245,717 sq km
water: 140 sq km
slightly smaller than Oregon
total: 3,399 km
border countries: Cote d'Ivoire 610 km, Guinea-Bissau 386 km, Liberia 563 km, Mali 858 km, Senegal 330 km, Sierra Leone 652 km
320 km
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Current Weather
generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds
generally flat coastal plain, hilly to mountainous interior
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mont Nimba 1,752 m
bauxite, iron ore, diamonds, gold, uranium, hydropower, fish, salt
arable land: 4.47%
permanent crops: 2.64%
other: 92.89% (2005)
950 sq km (2003)
226 cu km (1987)
total: 1.51 cu km/yr (8%/2%/90%)
per capita: 161 cu m/yr (2000)
hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry season
deforestation; inadequate supplies of potable water; desertification; soil contamination and erosion; overfishing, overpopulation in forest region; poor mining practices have led to environmental damage
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
the Niger and its important tributary the Milo have their sources in the Guinean highlands
People ::Guinea
10,057,975 (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81
0-14 years: 42.8% (male 2,175,852/female 2,128,518)
15-64 years: 53.7% (male 2,701,184/female 2,704,161)
65 years and over: 3.5% (male 153,053/female 195,207) (2010 est.)
total: 18.5 years
male: 18.3 years
female: 18.8 years (2010 est.)
2.572% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31
37.52 births/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25
11 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
-0.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 113
urban population: 34% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 3.5% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2010 est.)
total: 65.22 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 31
male: 68.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 61.63 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)
total population: 57.09 years
country comparison to the world: 191
male: 55.63 years
female: 58.6 years (2010 est.)
5.15 children born/woman (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
1.6% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41
87,000 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
4,500 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and yellow fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies
aerosolized dust or soil contact disease: Lassa fever (2009)
noun: Guinean(s)
adjective: Guinean
Peuhl 40%, Malinke 30%, Soussou 20%, smaller ethnic groups 10%
Muslim 85%, Christian 8%, indigenous beliefs 7%
French (official); note - each ethnic group has its own language
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 29.5%
male: 42.6%
female: 18.1% (2003 est.)
total: 8 years
male: 10 years
female: 7 years (2006)
1.6% of GDP (2005)
country comparison to the world: 173
Government ::Guinea
conventional long form: Republic of Guinea
conventional short form: Guinea
local long form: Republique de Guinee
local short form: Guinee
former: French Guinea
name: Conakry
geographic coordinates: 9 33 N, 13 42 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
33 prefectures and 1 special zone (zone special)*; Beyla, Boffa, Boke, Conakry*, Coyah, Dabola, Dalaba, Dinguiraye, Dubreka, Faranah, Forecariah, Fria, Gaoual, Gueckedou, Kankan, Kerouane, Kindia, Kissidougou, Koubia, Koundara, Kouroussa, Labe, Lelouma, Lola, Macenta, Mali, Mamou, Mandiana, Nzerekore, Pita, Siguiri, Telimele, Tougue, Yomou
2 October 1958 (from France)
Independence Day, 2 October (1958)
23 December 1990 (Loi Fundamentale)
based on French civil law system, customary law, and decree; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
18 years of age; universal
chief of state: Gen Sekouba KONATE, interim leader of the National Council for Democracy and Development, replaced Capt. CAMARA following the attempted assassination of CAMARA on 3 December 2009
head of government: Prime Minister of the Transitional Government Jean-Marie DORE (since 26 January 2010)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
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elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (no term limits); candidate must receive a majority of the votes cast to be elected president; election last held on 27 June 2010 with a runoff election scheduled for 19 September 2010
election results: a runoff election between Cellou Dalein DIALLO and Alpha CONDE, the two candidates receiving the most votes, is scheduled for 19 September 2010; percent of vote (first round) - Cellou Dalein DIALLO 43.7%, Alpha CONDE 18.2%
unicameral People's National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale Populaire (114 seats; members elected by a mixed system of direct popular vote and proportional party lists)
elections: last held on 30 June 2002 (legislative elections first due in 2007 have been rescheduled multiple times and are currently unscheduled)
election results: percent of vote by party - PUP 61.6%, UPR 26.6%, other 11.8%; seats by party - PUP 85, UPR 20, other 9
Court of First Instance or Tribunal de Premiere Instance; Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
Democratic Union of Guinea or UDG [Mamadou SYLLA]; Guinean Union for Democracy or UGD; New Democratic Forces or NDF [Muoctar DIALLO]; Party for Unity and Progress or PUP [Sekou KONATE]; Rally for the Guinean People or RPG [Alpha CONDE]; Union for Progress and Renewal or UPR [Ousmane BAH]; Union for Progress of Guinea or UPG [Jean-Marie DORE, secretary-general]; Union of Democratic Forces of Guinea or UFDG [Cellou Dalein DIALLO]; Union of Republican Forces or UFR [Sidya TOURE]; United Front for Democracy and Change or FUDEC [Francois FALL]
National Confederation of Guinean Workers-Labor Union of Guinean Workers or CNTG-USTG Alliance (includes National Confederation of Guinean Workers or CNTG [Rabiatou Sarah DIALLO] and Labor Union of Guinean Workers or USTG [Dr. Ibrahima FOFANA]); Syndicate of Guinean Teachers and Researchers or SLECG [Dr. Louis M'Bemba SOUMAH]
chief of mission: Ambassador Mory Karamoko KABA
chancery: 2112 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 986-4300
FAX: [1] (202) 483-8688
chief of mission: Ambassador Patricia Newton MOLLER
embassy: Koloma, Conakry, east of Hamdallaye Circle
mailing address: B. P. 603, Transversale No. 2, Centre Administratif de Koloma, Commune de Ratoma, Conakry
telephone: [224] 65-10-40-00
FAX: [224] 65-10-42-97
three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side), yellow, and green; red represents the people's sacrifice for liberation and work; yellow stands for the sun, for the riches of the earth, and for justice; green symbolizes the country's vegetation and unity
note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the reverse of those on the flags of neighboring Mali and Senegal
Economy ::Guinea
Guinea possesses major mineral, hydropower, and agricultural resources, yet remains an underdeveloped nation. The country has almost half of the world's bauxite reserves. The mining sector accounts for more than 70% of exports. Long-run improvements in government fiscal arrangements, literacy, and the legal framework are needed if the country is to move out of poverty. Investor confidence has been sapped by rampant corruption, a lack of electricity and other infrastructure, a lack of skilled workers, and the political uncertainty because of the death of President Lansana CONTE in December 2008. International donors, including the G-8, the IMF, and the World Bank, cut their development programming significantly in response to the coup. Growth rose slightly in 2006-08, primarily due to increases in global demand and commodity prices on world markets, but the standard of living fell. The Guinea franc depreciated sharply as the prices for basic necessities like food and fuel rose beyond the reach of many Guineans.
$10.16 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 146
$10.53 billion (2008 est.)
$10.05 billion (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars
$4.394 billion (2009 est.)
-3.5% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 173
4.7% (2008 est.)
1.8% (2007 est.)
$1,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 214
$1,100 (2008 est.)
$1,100 (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars
agriculture: 24.2%
industry: 38.5%
services: 37.3% (2009 est.)
4.392 million (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81
agriculture: 76%
industry and services: 24% (2006 est.)
NA% est.)
47% (2006 est.)
lowest 10%: 1.9%
highest 10%: 41% (2006)
38.1 (2006)
country comparison to the world: 73
40.3 (1994)
12.5% of GDP (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 144
revenues: $598.1 million
expenditures: $728 million (2009 est.)
9% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 187
15% (2008 est.)
NA% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 5
22.25% (31 December 2005)
NA% (31 December 2008)
NA% (31 December 2008)
$NA (31 December 2008)
$309.8 million (31 December 2005)
$422.1 million (31 December 2005)
country comparison to the world: 122
rice, coffee, pineapples, palm kernels, cassava (tapioca), bananas, sweet potatoes; cattle, sheep, goats; timber
bauxite, gold, diamonds, iron; alumina refining; light manufacturing, and agricultural processing
-5% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112
850 million kWh
country comparison to the world: 149
note: excludes electricity generated at interior mining sites (2007 est.)
790.5 million kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 150
0 kWh (2008 est.)
0 kWh (2008 est.)
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 191
9,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 155
0 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 153
8,674 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 142
0 bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 175
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 149
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 169
0 cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 171
-$461 million (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 113
-$464 million (2008 est.)
$981 million (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 150
$1.392 billion (2008 est.)
bauxite, alumina, gold, diamonds, coffee, fish, agricultural products
India 19.68%, Spain 13.18%, Russia 7.24%, Germany 6.86%, Ireland 5.87%, US 5.71%, Ukraine 5.6% (2009)
$1.104 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 167
$1.373 billion (2008 est.)
petroleum products, metals, machinery, transport equipment, textiles, grain and other foodstuffs
China 8.67%, Netherlands 6.67%, France 4.33%, UK 4.22% (2009)
$51 million (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 152
$91 million (31 December 2008 est.)
$3.072 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 121
$3.222 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Guinean francs (GNF) per US dollar - 5,200 (2009), 5,500 (2008), 4,122.8 (2007), 5,350 (2006), 3,644.3 (2005)
Communications ::Guinea
50,000 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 163
3.84 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 96
general assessment: inadequate system of open-wire lines, small radiotelephone communication stations, and new microwave radio relay system
domestic: Conakry reasonably well served; coverage elsewhere remains inadequate and large companies tend to rely on their own systems for nationwide links; fixed-line teledensity less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership is expanding and approached 40 per 100 persons in 2008
international: country code - 224; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
government maintains control over broadcast media; single state-run TV station; state-run radio broadcast station also operates several stations in rural areas; about 20 privately-owned radio stations, nearly all in Conakry, and about a dozen community radio stations; foreign television programming available via satellite and cable subscription services (2008)
14 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 221
90,000 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 157
Transportation ::Guinea
16 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 142
total: 4
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2010)
total: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 2 (2010)
total: 1,185 km
country comparison to the world: 87
standard gauge: 238 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 947 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)
total: 44,348 km
country comparison to the world: 84
paved: 4,342 km
unpaved: 40,006 km (2003)
1,300 km (navigable by shallow-draft native craft) (2008)
country comparison to the world: 57
Conakry, Kamsar
Military ::Guinea
National Armed Forces: Army, Navy (Armee de Mer or Marine Guineenne, includes Marines), Guinean Air Force (Force Aerienne de Guinee) (2009)
18-25 years of age for compulsory or voluntary military service; 18-month conscript service obligation (2009)
males age 16-49: 2,292,338
females age 16-49: 2,264,589 (2010 est.)
males age 16-49: 1,443,655
females age 16-49: 1,483,676 (2010 est.)
male: 114,353
female: 111,873 (2010 est.)
1.1% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 127
Transnational Issues ::Guinea
conflicts among rebel groups, warlords, and youth gangs in neighboring states have spilled over into Guinea resulting in domestic instability; Sierra Leone considers Guinea's definition of the flood plain limits to define the left bank boundary of the Makona and Moa rivers excessive and protests Guinea's continued occupation of these lands, including the hamlet of Yenga, occupied since 1998
refugees (country of origin): 21,856 (Liberia); 5,259 (Sierra Leone); 3,900 (Cote d'Ivoire)
IDPs: 19,000 (cross-border incursions from Cote d'Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone) (2007)
current situation: Guinea is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children trafficked for the purposes of forced labor and sexual exploitation; the majority of victims are children, and internal trafficking is more prevalent than transnational trafficking; within the country, girls are trafficked primarily for domestic servitude and sexual exploitation, while boys are trafficked for forced agricultural labor, and as forced beggars, street vendors, shoe shiners, and laborers in gold and diamond mines; some Guinean men are also trafficked for agricultural labor within Guinea; transnationally, girls are trafficked into Guinea for domestic servitude and likely also for sexual exploitation
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Guinea is on the Tier 2 Watch List for its failure to provide evidence of increasing efforts to eliminate trafficking over 2006; Guinea demonstrated minimal law enforcement efforts for a second year in a row, while protection efforts diminished over efforts in 2006; the government did not report any trafficking convictions in 2007; due to a lack of resources, the government does not provide shelter services for trafficking victims; the government took no measures to reduce the demand for commercial sexual exploitation (2008)