Introduction ::Cote d'Ivoire
Close ties to France since independence in 1960, the development of cocoa production for export, and foreign investment made Cote d'Ivoire one of the most prosperous of the West African states, but did not protect it from political turmoil. In December 1999, a military coup - the first ever in Cote d'Ivoire's history - overthrew the government. Junta leader Robert GUEI blatantly rigged elections held in late 2000 and declared himself the winner. Popular protest forced him to step aside and brought Laurent GBAGBO into power. Ivorian dissidents and disaffected members of the military launched a failed coup attempt in September 2002. Rebel forces claimed the northern half of the country, and in January 2003 were granted ministerial positions in a unity government under the auspices of the Linas-Marcoussis Peace Accord. President GBAGBO and rebel forces resumed implementation of the peace accord in December 2003 after a three-month stalemate, but issues that sparked the civil war, such as land reform and grounds for citizenship, remained unresolved. In March 2007 President GBAGBO and former New Force rebel leader Guillaume SORO signed the Ouagadougou Political Agreement. As a result of the agreement, SORO joined GBAGBO's government as Prime Minister and the two agreed to reunite the country by dismantling the zone of confidence separating North from South, integrate rebel forces into the national armed forces, and hold elections. Disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration of rebel forces have been problematic as rebels seek to enter the armed forces. Citizen identification and voter registration pose election difficulties, and balloting planned for November 2009 was postponed with no future date set. Several thousand UN troops and several hundred French remain in Cote d'Ivoire to help the parties implement their commitments and to support the peace process.
Geography ::Cote d'Ivoire
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Ghana and Liberia
8 00 N, 5 00 W
total: 322,463 sq km
country comparison to the world: 68
land: 318,003 sq km
water: 4,460 sq km
slightly larger than New Mexico
total: 3,110 km
border countries: Burkina Faso 584 km, Ghana 668 km, Guinea 610 km, Liberia 716 km, Mali 532 km
515 km
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
Current Weather
tropical along coast, semiarid in far north; three seasons - warm and dry (November to March), hot and dry (March to May), hot and wet (June to October)
mostly flat to undulating plains; mountains in northwest
lowest point: Gulf of Guinea 0 m
highest point: Mont Nimba 1,752 m
petroleum, natural gas, diamonds, manganese, iron ore, cobalt, bauxite, copper, gold, nickel, tantalum, silica sand, clay, cocoa beans, coffee, palm oil, hydropower
arable land: 10.23%
permanent crops: 11.16%
other: 78.61% (2005)
730 sq km (2003)
81 cu km (2001)
total: 0.93 cu km/yr (24%/12%/65%)
per capita: 51 cu m/yr (2000)
coast has heavy surf and no natural harbors; during the rainy season torrential flooding is possible
deforestation (most of the country's forests - once the largest in West Africa - have been heavily logged); water pollution from sewage and industrial and agricultural effluents
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
most of the inhabitants live along the sandy coastal region; apart from the capital area, the forested interior is sparsely populated
People ::Cote d'Ivoire
country comparison to the world: 57
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2010 est.)
0-14 years: 40.6% (male 4,215,912/female 4,146,077)
15-64 years: 56.6% (male 5,942,642/female 5,720,108)
65 years and over: 2.9% (male 296,074/female 296,255) (2010 est.)
total: 19.4 years
male: 19.6 years
female: 19.3 years (2010 est.)
2.133% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49
32.11 births/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
10.78 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45
urban population: 49% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 3.2% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.99 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2010 est.)
total: 68.06 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 27
male: 75.17 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 60.73 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)
total population: 55.45 years
country comparison to the world: 194
male: 54.64 years
female: 56.28 years (2010 est.)
4.01 children born/woman (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45
3.9% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
480,000 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
38,000 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and yellow fever
water contact: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)
noun: Ivoirian(s)
adjective: Ivoirian
Akan 42.1%, Voltaiques or Gur 17.6%, Northern Mandes 16.5%, Krous 11%, Southern Mandes 10%, other 2.8% (includes 130,000 Lebanese and 14,000 French) (1998)
Muslim 38.6%, Christian 32.8%, indigenous 11.9%, none 16.7% (2008 est.)
note: the majority of foreigners (migratory workers) are Muslim (70%) and Christian (20%)
French (official), 60 native dialects with Dioula the most widely spoken
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 48.7%
male: 60.8%
female: 38.6% (2000 est.)
4.6% of GDP (2001)
country comparison to the world: 81
Government ::Cote d'Ivoire
conventional long form: Republic of Cote d'Ivoire
conventional short form: Cote d'Ivoire
local long form: Republique de Cote d'Ivoire
local short form: Cote d'Ivoire
note: pronounced coat-div-whar
former: Ivory Coast
republic; multiparty presidential regime established 1960
note: the government is currently operating under a power-sharing agreement mandated by international mediators
name: Yamoussoukro
geographic coordinates: 6 49 N, 5 17 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
note: although Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983, Abidjan remains the commercial and administrative center; the US, like other countries, maintains its Embassy in Abidjan
19 regions; Agneby, Bafing, Bas-Sassandra, Denguele, Dix-Huit Montagnes, Fromager, Haut-Sassandra, Lacs, Lagunes, Marahoue, Moyen-Cavally, Moyen-Comoe, N'zi-Comoe, Savanes, Sud-Bandama, Sud-Comoe, Vallee du Bandama, Worodougou, Zanzan
7 August 1960 (from France)
Independence Day, 7 August (1960)
approved by referendum 23 July 2000
based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review in the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
18 years of age; universal
chief of state: President Laurent GBAGBO (since 26 October 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Guillaume SORO (since 4 April 2007)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note - under the current power-sharing agreement the prime minister and the president share the authority to appoint ministers
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elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held on 26 October 2000 (next to be held on 31 October 2010; following repeated postponement by the government; the UN Security Council has extended the government's mandate); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Laurent GBAGBO elected president; percent of vote - Laurent GBAGBO 59.4%, Robert GUEI 32.7%, Francis WODIE 5.7%, other 2.2%
unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (225 seats; members elected in single- and multi-district elections by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: elections last held on 10 December 2000 with by-elections on 14 January 2001 (elections originally scheduled for 2005 have been repeatedly postponed by the government)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - FPI 96, PDCI-RDA 94, RDR 5, PIT 4, other 2, independents 22, vacant 2
note: a Senate was scheduled to be created in October 2006 elections that never took place
Supreme Court or Cour Supreme consists of four chambers: Judicial Chamber for criminal cases, Audit Chamber for financial cases, Constitutional Chamber for judicial review cases, and Administrative Chamber for civil cases; there is no legal limit to the number of members
Citizen's Democratic Union or UDCY [Theodore MEL EG]; Democratic Party of Cote d'Ivoire or PDCI [Henri Konan BEDIE]; Ivorian Popular Front or FPI [Pascale Affi N'GUESSAN]; Ivorian Worker's Party or PIT [Francis WODIE]; Opposition Movement of the Future or MFA [Innocent Augustin ANAKY]; Rally of the Republicans or RDR [Alassane OUATTARA]; Union for Democracy and Peace in Cote d'Ivoire or UDPCI [Toikeuse MABRI]; over 144 smaller registered parties
Federation of University and High School Students of Cote d'Ivoire or FESCI [Serges KOFFI]; Rally of Houphouetists for Democracy and Peace or RHDP [Alphonse DJEDJE MADY]; Young Patriots [Charles BLE GOUDE]
chief of mission: Ambassador Yao Charles KOFFI
chancery: 2424 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 797-0300
FAX: [1] (202) 244-3088
chief of mission: Ambassador Wanda L. NESBITT
embassy: Cocody Riviera Golf 01, Abidjan
mailing address: B. P. 1712, Abidjan 01
telephone: [225] 22 49 40 00
FAX: [225] 22 49 43 32
three equal vertical bands of orange (hoist side), white, and green; orange symbolizes the land (savannah) of the north and fertility, white stands for peace and unity, green represents the forests of the south and the hope for a bright future
note: similar to the flag of Ireland, which is longer and has the colors reversed - green (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of Italy, which is green (hoist side), white, and red; design was based on the flag of France
Economy ::Cote d'Ivoire
Cote d'Ivoire is the world's largest producer and exporter of cocoa beans and a significant producer and exporter of coffee and palm oil. Consequently, the economy is highly sensitive to fluctuations in international prices for these products, and, to a lesser extent, in climatic conditions. Despite government attempts to diversify the economy, it is still heavily dependent on agriculture and related activities, engaging roughly 68% of the population. Since 2006, oil and gas production have become more important engines of economic activity than cocoa. According to IMF statistics, earnings from oil and refined products were $1.3 billion in 2006, while cocoa-related revenues were $1 billion during the same period. Cote d'Ivoire's offshore oil and gas production has resulted in substantial crude oil exports and provides sufficient natural gas to fuel electricity exports to Ghana, Togo, Benin, Mali and Burkina Faso. Oil exploration by a number of consortiums of private companies continues offshore, and President GBAGBO has expressed hope that crude output could reach 200,000 barrels per day by the end of the decade. Since the end of the civil war in 2003, political turmoil has continued to damage the economy, resulting in the loss of foreign investment and slow economic growth. GDP grew by more than 2% in 2008 and nearly 4% in 2009. Per capita income has declined by 15% since 1999.
$35.86 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99
$34.54 billion (2008 est.)
$33.75 billion (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars
$22.5 billion (2009 est.)
3.8% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
2.3% (2008 est.)
1.7% (2007 est.)
$1,700 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 191
$1,700 (2008 est.)
$1,700 (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars
agriculture: 28.2%
industry: 21.3%
services: 50.6% (2009 est.)
7.44 million (2009 est.) (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 59
agriculture: 68%
industry and services: NA (2007 est.)
note: unemployment may have climbed to 40-50% as a result of the civil war
42% (2006 est.)
lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 34% (2002)
44.6 (2002)
country comparison to the world: 44
36.7 (1995)
9.1% of GDP (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 148
revenues: $4.659 billion
expenditures: $5.03 billion (2009 est.)
61.9% of GDP (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28
64.3% of GDP (2008 est.)
1% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46
6.3% (2008 est.)
4.75% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 111
4.25% (31 December 2007)
$4.242 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 73
$4.451 billion (31 December 2007)
$2.117 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 100
$1.915 billion (31 December 2007)
$NA (31 December 2008)
$4.404 billion (31 December 2007)
$6.141 billion (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 73
$7.071 billion (31 December 2008)
$8.353 billion (31 December 2007)
coffee, cocoa beans, bananas, palm kernels, corn, rice, manioc (tapioca), sweet potatoes, sugar, cotton, rubber; timber
foodstuffs, beverages; wood products, oil refining, truck and bus assembly, textiles, fertilizer, building materials, electricity, ship construction and repair
5% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
5.275 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112
3.231 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 123
772 million kWh (2007 est.)
0 kWh (2008 est.)
58,950 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
24,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 118
115,700 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64
80,960 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 72
100 million bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66
1.3 billion cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
1.3 billion cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 85
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 184
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 185
28.32 billion cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71
-$113 million (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75
$488 million (2008 est.)
$8.749 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 86
$10.09 billion (2008 est.)
cocoa, coffee, timber, petroleum, cotton, bananas, pineapples, palm oil, fish
Netherlands 13.92%, France 10.75%, US 7.79%, Germany 7.2%, Nigeria 6.99%, Ghana 5.56% (2009)
$6.475 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104
$6.76 billion (2008 est.)
fuel, capital equipment, foodstuffs
Nigeria 20.75%, France 14.19%, China 7.18%, Thailand 5.09% (2009)
$3.267 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 97
$2.253 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
$12.08 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
$14.05 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 469.21 (2009), 447.81 (2008), 481.83 (2007), 522.89 (2006), 527.47 (2005)
note: since 1 January 1999, the West African CFA franc (XOF) has been pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 CFA francs per euro; West African CFA franc (XOF) coins and banknotes are not accepted in countries using Central African CFA francs (XAF), and vice versa, even though the two currencies trade at par
Communications ::Cote d'Ivoire
356,500 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 109
10.449 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 60
general assessment: well developed by African standards; telecommunications sector privatized in late 1990s and operational fixed-lines have more than quadrupled since that time with two fixed-line providers operating over open-wire lines, microwave radio relay, and fiber-optics; 90% digitalized
domestic: with multiple mobile-cellular service providers competing in the market, usage has increased sharply to roughly 55 per 100 persons
international: country code - 225; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2008)
state-owned television operates 2 stations; no private terrestrial TV stations, but satellite TV subscription service is available; state-owned radio operates 2 stations; some private radio stations; transmissions of several international broadcasters are available (2007)
9,865 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 121
660,000 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 101
Transportation ::Cote d'Ivoire
27 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 121
total: 7
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2010)
total: 20
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 3 (2010)
condensate 86 km; gas 180 km; oil 92 km (2009)
total: 660 km
country comparison to the world: 109
narrow gauge: 660 km 1.000 meter gauge
note: an additional 622 km of this railroad extends into Burkina Faso (2008)
total: 80,000 km
country comparison to the world: 60
paved: 6,500 km
unpaved: 73,500 km
note: includes intercity and urban roads; another 20,000 km of dirt roads are in poor condition and 150,000 km of dirt roads are impassable (2006)
980 km (navigable rivers, canals, and numerous coastal lagoons) (2008)
country comparison to the world: 67
Abidjan, Espoir, San-Pedro
Military ::Cote d'Ivoire
Cote d'Ivoire Defense and Security Forces (FDSCI): Army, Navy, Air Force (2006)
18-25 years of age for compulsory and voluntary male and female military service; voluntary recruitment of former rebels into the new national army is restricted to ages 22-29 (2010)
males age 16-49: 5,094,762
females age 16-49: 4,895,446 (2010 est.)
males age 16-49: 3,242,965
females age 16-49: 3,069,569 (2010 est.)
male: 240,989
female: 237,180 (2010 est.)
1.5% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 97
Transnational Issues ::Cote d'Ivoire
despite the presence of over 9,000 UN forces (UNOCI) in Cote d'Ivoire since 2004, ethnic conflict still leaves displaced hundreds of thousands of Ivorians in and out of the country as well as driven out migrants from neighboring states who worked in Ivorian cocoa plantations; the March 2007 peace deal between Ivorian rebels and the government brought significant numbers of rebels out of hiding in neighboring states
refugees (country of origin): 25,615 (Liberia)
IDPs: 709,000 (2002 coup; most IDPs are in western regions) (2007)
Cote d'Ivoire is a source, transit, and destination country for women and children trafficked for forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation; trafficking within the country is more prevalent than international trafficking and the majority of victims are children; women and girls are trafficked from northern areas to southern cities for domestic servitude, restaurant labor, and sexual exploitation; boys are trafficked internally for agricultural and service labor and transnationally for forced labor in agriculture, mining, construction, and in the fishing industry; women and girls are trafficked to and from other West and Central African countries for domestic servitude and forced street vending
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Cote d'Ivoire is on the Tier 2 Watch List for its failure to provide evidence of increasing efforts to eliminate trafficking in 2007, particularly with regard to its law enforcement efforts and protection of sex trafficking victims; in addition, Ivoirian law does not prohibit all forms of trafficking, and Cote d'Ivoire has not ratified the 2000 UN TIP Protocol (2008)
illicit producer of cannabis, mostly for local consumption; utility as a narcotic transshipment point to Europe reduced by ongoing political instability; while rampant corruption and inadequate supervision leave the banking system vulnerable to money laundering, the lack of a developed financial system limits the country's utility as a major money-laundering center (2008)